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Concord-Carlisle High School Learning Commons


Evaluating an author for credibility is a key skill. RAVEN is a useful tool to develop sound skills in source evaluation.


Use the RAVEN to evaluate the credibility of the author

Image attribution:



R - Reputation

What is the reputation of the author, the sources, and the publication? Do past actions or lies indicate the author, sources, or publication may not be reliable? Is the author, soure, or publication in a position of authority?

A - Ability to observe

Is the author in a position that allows access to reliable evidence? If the article is about an event, did the author actually observe the event?

V - Vested Interest

Does the author have a personal stake in the topic or event? Would the author gain anything by lying? Would the author gain anything by tellng the truth?

E - Expertise

Does the author have specialized knowledge on the topic or event? Does the evidence come from a source that has expertise on the topic or event?

N - Neutrality

Is the author neutral about the issue or is bias evident? Is the source of the evidence neutral or biased?

RAVEN Lesson Powerpoint


Despite the unfortunate acronym, the CRAAP Test is a useful test to evaluate a source:

  • Currency: Timeliness of information
  • Relevance: Importance of information for your needs
  • Authority: The source of the information
  • Accuracy: Reliability, truthfulness, correctness of content
  • Purpose: Reason the information exists

CRAAP Lesson Powerpoint