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Fake News

What is "fake"?

  1. It can't be verified or found on reputable sites

  2. Makes an emotional appeal

  3. Authors are not experts

  4. Fake news links back to fake or disreputable sites

Media Manipulation

The Media Manipulation Casebook

The media manipulation life cycle (MMLC) forms the basis of the Casebook, giving a common framework for journalists, researchers, technologists, and members of civil society to understand the origins and impacts of disinformation and its relation to the wider information ecosystem.1 Situated in the emerging field of Critical Internet Studies,2 this research methodology combines social science and data science to create a new framework for studying sociotechnical systems and their vulnerabilities.3

Fake News of 2017

From Snopes: Fake News of 2017

Circulated online, all false


Satire is a technique employed by writers to expose and criticize foolishness and corruption of an individual or a society by using humorironyexaggeration, or ridicule. It intends to improve humanity by criticizing its follies and foibles. A writer in a satire uses fictional characters, which stand for real people, to expose and condemn their corruption.


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